Sunday, October 30, 2016


小さなバッファはインメモリでもつが、メモリに収まらないような大きなバッファはテンポラリファイルを作り、file I/Oでアクセスする、というのが昔からの汎用的なバッファ実装のアプローチ。


幸いなことに最近は、メモリ空間が広い 64bit CPU だけ考えればいい。なので、ファイルの「読み込み」については、めんどくさいから全部mmapするというのが一般的なアプローチになってきている(例: LLVMのリンカであるlld)。

同様のことが、テンポラリファイルを使う可変長のバッファについても可能であり、h2o では実際に実装している。詳しくは h2o_buffer_reserve 関数の実装を見てもらえばいいと思いますが、ざっくりとした手順は以下のとおり:

  1. テンポラリファイルを作り、すぐ消す(作成の場合のみ。mkstemp, unlink してから file descriptor を使い続ける)
  2. サイズを設定する(posix_fallocate もしくは ftruncate)
  3. 旧来のマップされた領域を munmap する(リサイズの場合のみ)
  4. 全体を mmap する
  1. munmap して close する


Wednesday, September 14, 2016

H2O version 2.0.4 / 2.1.0-beta3 released including a vulnerability fix

Today we have released H2O version 2.0.4 / 2.1.0-beta3, which includes a fix to a vulnerability (CVE-2016-4864).

Users of H2O are advised to update immediately.

For detail, please refer to the issue page at

Thursday, September 8, 2016

H2O version 2.0.3 / 2.1.0-beta2 released

I am happy to announce the release of H2O HTTP/2 server version 2.0.3 and 2.1.0-beta2.

Version 2.0.3 is a maintenance release fixing issues found since the release of 2.0.2.

Version 2.1.0-beta2 introduces many features in addition to those introduced in 2.1.0-beta1, including mruby-based DSL for access control and DoS mitigation.

Please let us know if you find any issues in the beta release. We plan to release final version of 2.1.0 pretty soon.

Friday, June 24, 2016

H2O HTTP/2 server 2.0.1 / 2.1.0-beta1 released, with new features and performance optimizations

Today I am happy to announce the release of H2O HTTP/2 server version 2.0.1 and 2.1.0-beta1.

Version 2.0.1 is a bug-fix release of the 2.0 series. Existing users can upgrade to the new version to avoid the issues listed in the changeling.

Version 2.1.0-beta1 is the first beta release of 2.1, with a new throttle-response handler for per-response bandwidth throttling, and an enhancement to the status handler (pull #893). It also includes two new features that improve HTTP/2 performance: TCP latency optimization and support for link: rel=preload headers in informational response (pull #916).

With TCP latency optimization, users can expect 1 RTT or more reduction in time-to-render if the main resource (i.e. HTML) is much larger INITCWND (typically ~15KB).

The reduction comes from the fact that with the optimization enabled, H2O tries to keep the amount of HTTP/2 frames kept unsent in the TCP send buffer very small (to just two packets) during the slow-start phase. Since the amount of data unsent is kept small, the server can switch to sending a resource that blocks the rendering path (e.g. CSS) immediately when it receives a request for such resource, instead of pushing the HTML body stored in the TCP send buffer. As CWND grows, the connection handling switches to bandwidth-optimization mode, that pre-fills more data into the send buffer so that the kernel can send additional data immediately after receiving ACKs without user-space intervention.

Support for link: rel=preload headers in informational response helps web developers utilize HTTP/2 push. Use of the link header is becoming the standard way to instruct HTTP/2 servers to start pushing assets. The downside of the approach is that application servers typically cannot send the header until it generates the final response. Generation of the final response often involves time-consuming operations such as access to the database, keeping the HTTP/2 connection idle for that period.

Use of informational response lets us use the time slot for pushing asset files. Application servers can now send an informational response with link rel=preload headers to H2O to start pushing the asset files, then perform heavy tasks, and send the final response. Use of 1xx response will not cause interoperability issues, since only the final response is sent to the client connected to H2O.

Details of the two optimizations were covered in my presentation at Tokyo RubyKaigi 11. The slides are shown below:

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

H2O HTTP2 server 2.0 released!

We are happy to announce the release of H2O version 2.0.

It is a major update from 1.7 series, including many improvements and bug fixes.

The most prominent changes are:Full list of changes can be found here. Please refer to the reference documentation to find out how to use them.

Have fun!

Thursday, May 26, 2016

H2O version 1.7.3 / 2.0.0-beta5 released with a vulnerability fix

We have just released version 1.7.3 and 2.0.0-beta5 of the H2O HTTP/2 server.

The releases include a fix for a security issue (CVE-2016-4817). Existing users are encouraged to update their installations.

The details of the issue can be found here.

We would like to thank Tim Newsham for reporting the issue and Frederik Deweerdt for providing a fix.