Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Name Constraints を使った独自CAの運用手順

ウェブブラウザが新機能をHTTPSでしか有効にしないことが多くなってきたので、開発環境でもHTTPSを使いたい。でも、開発環境用にサーバ証明書を買うのは手間。Let's Encryptも運用がめんどくさいとか、社内からしかアクセスできないサーバへの証明書発行が難しいとかいろいろあるし…ってそこでName Constraintsを使った独自CAですよ奥さん。

Name Constraints が何であるかについては、以前オレオレ認証局の適切な運用とName Constraintsに書いたとおり。

本稿では、Name Constraintsを使うCAの運用手順を説明する。

1. CA鍵と証明書の作成

1.1. CAの秘密鍵を作成
% openssl genrsa -out ca.key 2048

1.2. openssl.cnfにCA証明書に設定する属性を指定するセクションを追記

1.3. CA証明書の作成
% openssl req -new -x509 -days 3650 -key ca.key -out ca.crt \
  -extensions private_ca

2. 証明書管理用ディレクトリを作成
% mkdir -p demoCA/newcerts
% touch demoCA/index.txt
% echo 00 > demoCA/serial

3. 証明書発行要求を受け取って証明書を発行
% openssl ca -keyfile ca.key -cert ca.crt \
  -extensions usr_cert -policy policy_anything -days 365 \
  -md sha256 -in -out



Friday, February 5, 2016

H2O HTTP/2 server 1.7.0 released; added a new benchmark

Today, I am happy to announce the release of H2O HTTP/2 server, version 1.7.0.

Major additions in this update are:
  • asynchronous HTTP client for mruby handler
  • Support for CGI and Basic Authentication
  • Support for wild-card hostnames

You can find more detailed description of the additions in my previous blogpost: H2O version 1.7.0-beta1 released with enhanced mruby scripting, CGI, and much more. And along with the new features, we have also enabled the use of Neverbleed by default, to reduce the risk of private key disclosure in case of a vulnerability.

We have also updated the numbers of the request-per-seconds benchmark.

I have seen many people hesitating to move to HTTPS or HTTP/2 in fear of performance issues. But what is apparent from this benchmark is that the performance of HTTP/2 with TLS is actually on par with HTTP/1 without TLS (in case of nginx) or much faster (in case of H2O).

Details of the benchmark (along with other benchmarks) can be found at