Thursday, March 26, 2015

論理削除はなぜ「筋が悪い」か

論理削除が云々について - mike-neckのブログ」を読んで。

データベース設計において、「テーブルの書き換えをするな、immutableなマスタと更新ログによって全てを構成しろ」というこの記事の主張はモデリング論として全く正しい

だが、残念なことに、ディスクやメモリが貴重な資源だった時代の技術であるRDBは、そのようなモデリングに基づいて設計されたデータベースには必ずしも適していない

第一の問題は、RDBに対してなされる様々な「更新」(トランザクション)は不定形(どのテーブルをどのように修正するかはアプリケーション依存)だという点。不定形な「更新」を時系列にそってRDBに記録していくのは、設計と並走性の点において困難あるいは煩雑なコーディングが必要になる(というか、そのような「イベント」による「変化」はREDOログに書き、その更新された「状態」をテーブルに反映していくというのがRDBの「一般的な使われ方」)。

第二の問題は、ほとんどのデータベースアクセスは、更新が蓄積された結果である「現在の状態」を問い合わせるものになるが、immutableなマスタと更新ログによって構成されるデータベース設計においては、そのような問い合わせに効率的に応答するのが難しいという点である。

従って、現実的なデータベース設計においては、多くのテーブルが「現在の状態」をもつ、immutableなマスタと更新ログから合成可能な「現在の状態を表現するビュー」を実体化したものとして表現されることになる。

ふりかえって、論理削除とはなにか。「現在の状態を表現する実体化ビュー」に、過去の状態(かつて存在したデータであることを意味する「削除済」)をフラグとして付与したものである。

「現在の状態を表現する」ことを前提にしたビューであるところのテーブルに、過去の状態の一部だけを表現するフラグを追加するのが「筋が悪い」設計だというのは明らかだ。

過去の状態を参照すべき要件があるなら、そのテーブルが表現する情報についてはimmutableなマスタと更新ログを用意し、その射影として表現されるビューとして「現在の状態」を実現すべきである。そのようなビューは自動生成できるならしても良いし、手動で更新するなら、ストアドを使うか、あるいはアプリケーションのデータベースアクセス層において手続きをまとめる方法を考えるべきだろう。

ただ、immutableなマスタ、更新ログと「現時点のビュー」の3テーブルを準備・運用するというのはそれなりにコストがかかるので、筋が悪い「削除フラグ」(より一般化すれば状態フラグ)を使うかどうかはケースバイケースで判断するのもひとつの見識である。


まとめ:
  • データベース設計にあたっては、テーブルを「現在の状態」を表現するものとして設計するか、それとも「immutableなマスタと更新ログ、および現時点の状態を表現するビュー」として設計するかという、2つの選択肢がある
  • 前者は簡潔で性能が高くなるが、過去の情報を参照できないという問題がある
  • 「削除フラグ」というのは、「現在の状態」を表現するテーブルに過去の状態の一部を表現する機能を場当たり的に足したもの(なので筋が悪い)
  • それよりも、過去の情報を参照する要件がある場合(もしくはそのような要件が発生すると想定される場合)は、テーブル単位で「immutableなマスタと更新ログ」という設計を採用しつつ、現在の情報をビューとして表現することを考えた方がよい

こういった点を理解・検討した上で、「それでも削除フラグの方が楽だろう」という判断を下しているなら良いと思います。


追記: Re: 論理削除はなぜ「筋が悪い」か - Blog by Sadayuki Furuhashiで挙げられていた疑問点について
効率的にSELECTや更新ができるスキーマを作ろうとすると、VIEWやFUNCTIONなど、側に実装するコードが増えてくる。それらのコードは、上記のようにDB側に実装しても良い(するべき)だろうか?それともアプリケーションに実装するべきだろうか?
アプリケーション要件によるでしょう。

が、アプリケーション要件に関わらず正しく動作する方法が何かという問に対しては、RDB側でトリガ(あるいはストアド)として実装するのが安全だというのが答えになるでしょう。また、アプリケーションが操作可能な処理は「immutableなマスタ」と更新ログテーブルへの追記のみとし、両者への操作から「現在の状態を表現するビュー」を生成すべきであって、「現在の状態を表現するビュー」をアプリケーションが操作し、その変更内容をトリガでログに出力するという方式は避けるべきという話になるかと思います。

なぜか。そうしないと分離レベルや主キーの発番処理に起因する込み入った条件が色々…続きはお近くのDBAにご相談ください。
テーブルのスキーマは停止時間なしで変更する手法をいくつか思いつくが(PostgreSQLなら)、上記のレコードを削除する操作などはアプリケーションの変更を伴うので難しい(アプリケーションとDBのスキーマをアトミックに変更できない)
カラムのアクセス権は無停止で変更できませんか? つまり、アプリケーションを拡張した結果として削除フラグの存在が冗長になったのであれば、そのフラグの更新をストアドあるいはトリガで行われるように変更し、書き込み権限をドロップすればいいでしょう。

こんな感じかと思います。

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