Monday, December 8, 2014

なぜHTTPSはHTTPより速いのか

先週、httpvshttps.com というウェブサイトが公開されました。このウェブサイトでは、HTTP と HTTPS を用いてアクセスした場合のウェブページのダウンロード完了までにかかる時間の比較ができるのですが、多くの環境で HTTPS の方が HTTP よりも高速なことに驚きの声が上がっていました。

HTTP が TCP 上で平文を送受信するのに対し、HTTPS は TCP 上で TLS (SSL) という暗号化技術を用いて通信を行います。ならば、TLS のオーバーヘッドのぶん HTTPS のほうが遅いはずだ、という予測に反する結果になったのですから、驚くのも無理はありません。

実は、この結果にはからくりがありました。

Google Chrome、Mozilla Firefox、最近のSafari注1は、Google が開発した通信プロトコル「SPDY」に対応しており、HTTPS の通信においてはHTTP/1.1 ではなく SPDY を TLS 上の通信プロトコルとして利用します。

HTTP/1.1 は20年近く前に標準化された技術であり、今日では様々な限界が指摘されるようになってきています。そのうち最大の問題が、ウェブブラウザ上において、現在ダウンロード中のファイルのダウンロードが完了するまで次のファイルのダウンロード要求を送信できないという問題です。クライアントとサーバ間を通信が往復するには、数十ミリ秒から数百ミリ秒という時間がかかります(この時間は、ラウンドトリップタイム (RTT) と呼ばれます)。

ウェブブラウザが、第一のファイルのダウンロードを完了した直後に第二のファイルのダウンロード要求をサーバに送信したとしても、その中身が届き始めるのは、このラウンドトリップタイムが経過した後になります。その間、サーバからクライアント方向の通信回路は無駄に遊んでいることになります。

httpvshttps.com のような、小さな画像ファイルを多数ダウンロードするウェブページでは(これは多くのウェブサイトに見られる一般的な特徴です)、この無駄が占める割合が大きくなるのです(ウェブブラウザの動作としては、リクエストを送信後、RTTが経過するまでじっと待ち、その後一瞬でファイル受信が完了、直後に次のリクエストを送信し、RTT が経過するまでじっと待つ…を繰り返す形になります)。

一方、SPDY はこれら HTTP/1.1 が抱える問題を改善しようとする Google の試みとして開発が進んできたプロトコルであり、多数のファイルを並行してダウンロードすることが可能となっています。HTTP/1.1 のように、ファイルの到着を待つだけの時間は発生しません。

この違いが、暗号化のオーバーヘッドがあるにも関わらず、HTTPS のウェブページの方が HTTP より速くダウンロードが完了することの原因なのです。


■この傾向は今後も続くのか

SPDY は Google が開発した実証実験的な性格の強いプロトコルでした。そこから得られた成果をもとに、現在、HTTP/2 という次世代の HTTP プロトコルの標準化が進められており、はやければあと数週間で標準化される見込みとなっています。

HTTP/2 プロトコルの標準化案自体は HTTP でのアクセスにおいても HTTPS でのアクセスにおいても利用可能なものとなっています。ですが、多くのウェブブラウザはHTTPS でのアクセスにおいてのみ、HTTP/2 を有効化する公算が高くなっています注2

このため、HTTPS の方が HTTP よりも高速である、という状況は今後とも続くと考えられます。

■HTTPS のサーバ負荷はどうなのか

HTTPS に対する事業者の不安としては、ダウンロード速度に加えてもう一点、サーバ負荷の問題をあげることができます。暗号化を導入することで、サーバの負荷が増大するのではないか。

筆者らが開発している、高速なHTTPサーバであるH2Oでは…(続く)

本記事は HTTP2 Advent Calendar 2014 および H2O Advent Calendar 2014 の一部です。筆者体調不良により遅延&書きかけの状態ですみませんすみません。

注1: YosemiteまたはiOS 8上で動作するものに限る
注2: 参照: (HTTP/2標準化ワークグループ座長のブログ記事, https://wiki.mozilla.org/Networking/http2

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